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Chapter 1.6. Types Of Zulm

Zulm is of three types, and all of these are from the sicknesses of the heart, and in justice lies its good health and purity. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said to one of the people, 'If you were healthy you would not fear anyone,' meaning that the fear you have of men is due to a sickness from within you, such as the sickness of shirk and sins.

The basis of the heart being corrected lies in it being alive and enlightened.

Allah, the Most High, said,

Is he who was dead and We gave him life and set for him a, light whereby he can walk amongst men, like him who is in the darkness of disbelief from which he can never come? [Surah al-Anam (6) : 122]

This is why Allah has mentioned the life of the heart, its illumination death and darkness in a number of places, like His, the Exalted's saying,

That he may give warning to he who is alive [Surah Ya-Sin (36) : 70]

O you who believe! Answer the call of Allah and His Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life, and know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart. And verily to Him you shall be gathered. [Surah al-Anfal (8) : 24]

He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living [Surah ar-Rum (30) : 19]

From the examples of this is His bringing forth a believer from a disbeliever, and a disbeliever from a believer.

In the authentic Hadith,

The similitude of a house in which Allah is mentioned, and the house in which Allah is not mentioned is as the living and the dead. [Bukhari]

In the Sahih (of al-Bukhari) is the Hadith,

Perform some of your prayers in your houses, and do not take them as graves.

Allah, the Most High, has said,

Those who reject our signs are deaf, dumb and in darkness. [Surah af-Anam (6) : 39]

Allah has mentioned the 'Verse of Light' and the 'Verse of Darkness' saying,

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a niche and within it a lamp, the lamp is in the glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the east or west, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no tire touched it. Light upon Light! [Surah al-Nur (24) : 35]

This is the similitude for the light of faith in the hearts of the believers. Then He said,

As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing, but He finds Allah with him, Who will pay his due (in Hell). And Allah is Swift in taking account. Or (the state of the disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave, topped by dark clouds - darkness one above another - if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, there is no light. [Surah an-Nur (24) : 3940]

So the first verse (no. 39) sets forth a similitude for the false beliefs and the actions that arise from these beliefs, One considers them to be something of benefit, but when they come to him (on the day of Judgment) he will not find any benefit in them at all. Rather Allah will fully give him his recompense for these actions (in Hell). The second verse (no. 40) is the similitude propounded for extensive ignorance, Jack of faith and (correct) knowledge. The person who possesses these is in darknesses one above another, unable to see anything, for indeed the sight occurs only with the light of faith and (correct) knowledge.

Allah, the Most High, said,

Indeed, those who are pious, when an evil thought comes to them from Satan they remember (Allah), and they then see (aright). [Surah al-Araf (7) : 201]

And indeed she did desire him and he (Yusuf) would have inclined to her desire, had he not seen the evidence of his Lord. [Surah Yusuf (12) : 24]

Meaning the proof of faith which his heart had attained, so due to this Allah caused him to turn away from that which he was inclined to, and recorded for him a complete good deed, and no sin was recorded against him due to his having performed a good action and not performed an evil one.

Allah, the Exalted said,

...In order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light ... [Surah Ibrahim (14) : 1]

Allah is the Protector of those who believe. He brings them out from the darkness into the light. But as for those who disbelieve their protectors are false deities, they bring them out from the light into the darkness. [Surah al-Baqarah (2) : 257]

O you who believe (in Moses and Jesus)! Fear Allah and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double portion of His Mercy; and He will give you a light by which you shall walk straight... [Surah ai-Hadid (57) : 28]

This is why Allah has propounded two types of parables for faith a parable of water by which life exists and the foam which comes with it; and a parable of fire by which light is produced.

Allah said,

He sends down water (rain) from the sky, and the valleys flow according to their measure, but the floods bears away the foam that mounts up on the surface, and also from that (ore) which they heat in the fire in order to make ornaments or utensils, rises a foam like unto it, thus does Allah (by parables) show forth truth from falsehood... [Surah ar-Rad (13) : 17]

Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness so they could not see. They are deaf, dumb and blind - so they will not return (to the Right Path). Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers. The lightening almost snatches away their sight, when­ ever it flashes for them they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed Allah has power over all things. [Surah al-Baqarah (2) : 17-20]

So He propounded a parable for them with one who kindled a fire, each time it ignited Allah caused it to extinguish, and the parable of water in which the water is sent down containing darkness, thunder and lightning - this is not the place for a detailed explanation of these parables for the purpose here is only to mention the life of the heart and its illumination.