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Chapter 5. Glossary Of Arabic Terms

Ayah: pl. ayat. Sign, miracle, example, lesson, verse.

Abd: pl. ebad. slave, servant, worshipper.

Abrar. righteous.

Adhan: fiqh: the call to prayer.

Barzakh: barrier, obstruction, an isthmus. fiqh: a barrier placed between a person who has deceased and this worldly life.

Bidah: innovation, fiqh: that which is newly introduced into the religion of Allah.

Daif: weak. A hadith that has failed to meet the criteria of authenticity.

Din: religion, way of life.

Dhikr. remembrance, fiqh: making mention of Allah.

Dua: supplication, invocation.

Fard. see wajib.

Fasad: corruption, decay, and invalidity,

Fatwa: fiqh: legal ruling.

Fiqh: understanding and comprehension. flqh: of the rulings and legislation of Islam.

Fisq: pl. fusuq. Immorality, transgression, wickedness.

Fitnah: pl. fitan. Trial, tribulation, civil strife.

Fitrah: primordial nature, the harmony between man, creation and Creator.

Ghayb: the Unseen, those matters beyond our senses.

Gbubta: envy, referring to the permissible form of envy where the envier wishes to have the same blessings as the envied but without desiring to see them removed from the envied. This is opposed to hasad, the blameworthy form of envy where the envier wishes to see the blessings removed from the envied.

Hafidh pl. huffadh. Hadith Master, commonly referred to one who has memorised at least 1OO OOO ahadith.

Hadith: pl. ahadith, speech, report, account. fiqh: a narration describing the sayings, actions, character, physical description and tacit approval of the Prophet.

Hajj. fiqh: pilgrimage, one of the pillars of Islam.

Halal: released. fiqh: permissible.

Hanif. pl. Hunafa. Upright and Devout. One who leaves the false religions and beliefs for the truth and does not swerve from it. His outward rectitude reflects what is inside him.

Haram. forbidden, sacred, restricted. fiqh: unlawful, that which the legally responsible person is rewarded for leaving and sinful for doing.

Hasad: see Ghubta.

Hasan: good. fiqh: a hadith that has met the criteria of authenticity to a sufficient level as would allow it to be used as legal proof.

Hawa: base desires.

Hudud: limits, boundaries. fiqh: limits ordained by Allah, prescribed punishments.

Ihram: the ceremonial state of making Hajj or the Hajj garments themselves.

lmam. model, exemplar. fiqh: religious leader, one who leads the congregational prayer or leads a community.

Iman: faith that also comprises a meaning of submission. Its place is the heart, the tongue and the limbs.

Ishk: passionate love.

Isnad: chain of narration.

Jahiliyyah: Pre-Islamic Ignorance. Technically this refers to the condition of a people before the guidance of Allah reaches them, or the state of a people that prevents them from ac­cepting the guidance of Allah.

Janabah: fiqh: state of major impurity.

Janazah: fiqh. funeral prayer; funeral procession.

Jihad: striving in the Way of Allah to make His Word supreme.

Jinn: another creation besides mankind who are invisible to us. They are also subject to the laws of Islam and will be judged in the Hereafter according to how they lived in this life.

Kafir. a rejecter of faith; disbeliever.

Khalifah: pl. khulafa. Successor, representative. fiqh: of the Prophet  head of the Islamic state. Also called Amir al- mumineen or Leader of the Believers.

Khawf: fear.

Khutbah: sermon, lecture. fiqh: Friday sermon.

Makruh: fiqh: disliked, reprehensible, that which the legally responsible person is rewarded for leaving but not punished for doing.

Mawdu: fabricated  hadith. That hadith which is a lie against the Prophet

Muhaddith: pl. muhaddithin. Scholar of Hadith.

Mujtahid; one who performs ijtihad. fiqh: that level of scholar who can deduce independent verdicts directly from the primary Islamic sources.

Munafiq: hypocrite. fiqh: one who outwardly displays Islam but inwardly conceals disbelief. This is the worst type of hypocrisy and its possessor is the worst type of disbeliever, there are other lesser types.

Qadaa: see qadar.

Qadar. Allah's decree of all matters in accordance with His prior knowledge and as dictated by His wisdom.

Qiblah: fiqh: direction to which the Muslims pray, towards the kabah.

Rahbah: dread.

Radiy Allahu anhu/ anha/ anhum/ anhuma: may Allah be pleased with  him/her/them/both of them.

RahimahAllah/ RahimahumAllah: mnay Allah bestow his mercy upon him/them.

Ramadan: ninth month of the Islamic calendar.

Rida: contentment and pleasure.

Riya: an act of worship undertaken by someone to be seen and praised by others and not purely for Allah.

Ruqya: recitation used to cure an illness or disease. It can only be done in the Arabic tongue, in words whose meaning is understood, using verses of the Quran or supplications of the Prophet combined with the belief that it is ortly Allah who in reality gives the cure.

Sahabah: fervent longing.

Sabr. patience, steadfastness.

Sahih: healthy, sound, authentic, correct. A h adith that has met the criteria of authenticity and can be used as a legal proof.

Salah: fiqh: the second pillar of Islam, the prayer.

Salaf. predecessors, commonly employed to refer to the first three generations of Muslims.

Sawm: fiqh: fasting, one of the pillars of Islam.

Shaghafah: crazed passion.

Shahadah: testifying, witness. The declaration that none has the right to be worshipped save Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

Shahwa: carnal lusts.

Shariah: divine Islamic law as ordained by Allah.

Sharik: partner, associate.

Shaykh: old man. Fiqh: learned person, scholar. Sufr: a guide along the  spiritual  path.

Shaytan: Satan., Iblis, a devil.

Shirk: polytheism, associating partners with Allah in matters that are exclusive to Allah.

Sunan: a compilation of ahadith.

Sunnah: habit, customary practice, norm and usage as sanctioned by tradition. fiqh. the sayings, commands, prohibitions, actions, and tacit approvals of the Prophet.

Surah: chapter of the Quran.

Surah: image, form, face.

Taghut. all that is falsely worshipped besides Allah.

Tafsir. elucidation, clarification, explanation. fiqh: of the Quran.

Taqwa: fearful awareness of Allah, pious dedication, being careful not to transgress the bounds set by Allah.

Tawakkul: trust and absolute reliance.

Tawhid: the foundation stone of Islam, the absolute belief in the Oneness of Allah - His being the sole Creator and Sustainer, His being the only One deserving worship and His being unique with respect to His Names and Attributes.

Ummah: nation, the Muslim nation.

Wudu: fiqh: ritual ablution.

Zakah: fiqh: one of the pillars of Islam, an obligatory tax levied on a Muslim wealth subject to certain criteria.

Zindiq: heretic, fiqh: Hanafi - one who does not adhere to a religion; Others - one who is a disbeliever pretending to be a Muslim.

Zalim: one who commits zulm: injustice, harm, transgression either against Allah, himself or another creation.

Zuhd: asceticism.