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Chapter 5. The Divine Decree And Ordainment Of Allah

From the Attributes of Allah, is that He does whatsoever He wants. Nothing comes to pass, except by His desire (Iraadah) and nothing escapes His Will (Mashee'ah). There is nothing in this world that escapes from His Preordainment (Taqdeer) and nothing comes to pass except with His Administration (Tadbeer). There is no one that can go around the Preordainment (Qadar) that has been recorded for him. Nor can one transgress the limits of what has been decreed for him in the Written Tablet (Al-Lawh- ul-Mahfoodh). He wills all that the creation does. Had He made them infallible, they would not disobey Him, and had He willed that they all obey Him, they would surely obey Him. He created the creation and their actions, and He preordained their provision and life spans. He guides whom He wills by His wisdom.

Allah says:

"He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned." [Surah Al-Anbiyaa (21): 23] Allah says:

"Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainment)." [Surah Al-Qamar (54): 49]

And He says:

"He has created everything, and so He has assigned its Preordainment." [Surah Al-Furqaan (25): 2]

And He says:

"No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves, except that it is (written) in a Book (Al-Lawh-ul-Mahfoodh) before We bring it into existence." [Surah Al-Hadeed (57): 22]

And He says:

"And whoever Allah wills to guide, he opens his breast (i.e. heart) to Islam. And whoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast (i.e. heart) closed and constricted." [Surah Al-Ana'aam (6): 125]

Ibn Umar reported that Jibreel asked the Prophet (pbuh) what Iman was, so he responded: "To believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it." So Jibreel told him: "You have spoken truthfully." Reported by Muslim

And the Prophet (pbuh) said: "I believe in Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it, the sweet of it and the bitter of it."

One of the supplications that the Prophet (pbuh) taught Al- Hasan bin 'Ali and which he himself used to supplicate with during the Qunoot of Witr, was: "And save me from the bad of what You have ordained."

We do not use the Qadaa and the Qadar of Allah as an excuse for us to abandon following His commandments and avoiding His prohibitions. Rather, we are obligated to believe in and know that with Allah lies the proof (eliminating all excuses) by His revealing of the Books and His sending of the Messengers. Allah says:

"In order that mankind shall have no excuse (i.e. proof) against Allah after the (coming of) Messengers." [Surah An-Nisaa (4): 165]

We know that Allah, High and Exalted, did not command or forbid except that which can be acted upon or abandoned. He did not force anyone to commit acts of disobedience nor did He compel anyone to abandon obeying Him. Allah, the Most High, says:

"Allah has not given any soul a responsibility, except that He has given it the ability (to carry out that responsibility)." [Surat-ul-Baqarah (2): 286]

And Allah says:

"So fear Allah as much as you are able to." [Surah At-Taghaabun (64): 16] And Allah says:

"This Day every person will be recompensed for what he earned. There will be no injustice (upon anybody in their judgement) on that Day." [Surah Ghaafir (40): 17]

This indicates that every servant possesses actions and things he earns – he will be recompensed for his good deeds with reward and for his bad deeds with punishment. This will occur by the Divine Execution (Al-Qadaa) and Decree (Al-Qadar) of Allah.