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Chapter 1. The Praise Of Allah For His Prophet And The Exalted Status In Which He Beholds Him

The first part contains 10 chapters split into sections and depicts the value Allah places on His Prophet in both his words and actions.

This chapter contains some of the clearest Quran verses that speak of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) depicting the high esteem and praise of Allah for him together with the excellence of his qualities.

Section 1: The Prophet's praiseworthiness and the multiplicity of his excellent qualities

Section 2: Allah made His Prophet a witness over mankind; a description of this praiseworthy and honourable rank

Section 3: The kindness and gentleness of Allah towards the Prophet

Section 4: The Swearing of Allah to his immense value

Section 5: The Oath of Allah confirming the position of Prophet

Section 6: The mentioning of Allah of the Prophet's compassionate and generous disposition

Section 7: The way in which Allah praised the excellent qualities of His Prophet

Section 8: The Command of Allah to His creation to praise the Prophet, His protection of him and the removal of punishment on account of him

Section 9: The honour of the Prophet as expounded in the chapter Al-Fatiha-"The Opening"

Section 10: How Allah expresses His honouring of the Prophet in the Quran and makes clear His position and the esteem with which He regards him together with other blessed matters

 

Section 1: The Prophet's praiseworthiness and the multiplicity of his excellent qualities

 

Allah says, "Indeed, there has come to you a Messenger from your own" 9:128. In this verse commentators draw our attention to the fact that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) was already known as being both truthful and trustworthy. No one had any reason to suppose he would lie to them or not give them good counsel. Each tribe of Arabia was linked to him either through kinship or ancestry and he was by far their most noble and excellent kinsman. Imam Ali, may Allah honour his face, explained that the phrase in the preceding verse 'from your own' refers to either lineage, relationship by marriage or descent and that from the time of Prophet Adam, peace be upon him, there was neither an adulterer nor fornicator in the lineage of the Prophet, all were officially married. Such was importance of the transmission of lineage to the Arabs that al-Kalbi's son was able to trace a line of no less than five hundred female ancestors of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). He too verified that none had fornicated nor yet were the evils rampant during the 'Age of Ignorance' found in any of them.

 

Al-Hussayn, son of al-Fadl points out that Allah honoured him with two of His own Names-Rauf, the Kind and Raheem, the Merciful. Referring to the verse "Whosoever obeys the Messenger, indeed he has obeyed Allah." 4:80. Jaafar, the son of Mohammed Sadiq said, "Allah was aware that His creation would be incapable of pure obedience to Him so He informed us in this order-the Messenger, then Allah-so it would be realized one would never be able to aspire to the achievement of pure obedience to Him. Therefore between Himself He placed a human, adorning him with His own attributes of the Kind and Merciful. He made him a truthful ambassador for creation and decreed that when a person obeys him, they are in fact obeying Allah, and when someone complies with him, they are also complying with Allah. Quoting the verse "and when you turn among those who prostrate themselves" 26:219, Abbas' son explained that the meaning of this verse is that the seed of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) was implanted in Prophet Adam and thereafter implanted in succession from one prophet to the next until Allah finally brought him as a Prophet.

 

Abu Bakr, Tahir's son, explained the verse "We have not sent you except as a mercy to all the worlds." 21:107 as meaning Allah endowed Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) with mercy so that his very being was mercy and all his qualities and attributes were a mercy to all creation. When a person is touched by any portion of his mercy he is saved in both worlds from every hateful matter and reaches everything that is loved. He further explained that the Prophet's life and death were a mercy because the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "When Allah decrees mercy for a nation He takes its Prophet to Him before them, and causes him to be the one to go ahead in order to prepare the way for them." Samarkandi further elabourated "as a mercy to all the worlds" saying it refers to both mankind and jinn, and that it has also been explained as being for all of creation. For believers he is indeed a mercy as he is their guide. As for the hypocrites he was also a mercy to them because of his granting their security by not killing them rather a fine was imposed. When it comes to those who did not believe he was also merciful by deferring their punishment. Abbas' son commented, "He is a mercy to both believers and unbelievers. In the case of the unbeliever they are saved from the punishment that came upon other communities who belied their prophet."

One day the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) asked the Archangel Gabriel, "Has any of this mercy touched you?" Gabriel replied, "Yes, I used to fear what would befall me, but I feel secure now because of the way Allah praised me when he said, "of power, given a rank by the Owner of the Throne obeyed, and honest." 81:20-21 Jaafar Sadiq said regarding the meaning of the verse "'Peace be upon you, Companions of the Right!'" 56:91 is because of Prophet Mohammed, and the cause of their peace is the great honour bestowed upon Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). "Allah is the Lighter of the heavens and the earth. The example of his Light is like a tube, in which there is a wick. The wick is in the lamp and the lamp is as a glittering planet kindled from a Blessed Tree, an olive that is neither of the East nor of the West. Its oil would almost shine forth though no fire touched it. Light upon light; Allah guides to His Light whom He will. Allah strikes parables for people. Allah has knowledge of all things." 24:35. The scholars Ka'b al-Ahbar and Jubair' son explained that "the second light in the phrase "Light upon light" refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) and that "The example of his Light" refers to the light of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him).

 

Sahl, Abdullah Tustori's son further explained that it means Allah is the Guide of both the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth. He went onto say, "like the light of Mohammed when it is lodged in the loins like a tube and that the wick means his heart, and the lamp is his chest. It is as if it were a glittering planet because of the belief and wisdom contained therein, kindled from a Blessed Tree, meaning the light of Prophet Abraham, peace be upon him. Allah draws the comparison with the Blessed Tree saying 'Its oil would almost shine forth though no fire touched it' means the prophecy of the coming of Mohammed is evident to mankind before he speaks, just like the oil." There are many other commentaries on this verse and Allah knows best its meaning. There are many other references in the Quran that refer to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as a 'light' or a 'light shedding lamp'. Allah says, "A light has come to you from Allah and a Clear Book." 5:15. And "O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, and to bear a warning, a caller to Allah by His permission and as a light shedding lamp." 33:45-46.

Allah, the Almighty also says, "Have We not expanded your chest for you" 94:1. 'Expanded' means to widen, immense, and the word 'chest' in this verse refers to his heart. Abbas' son explained that Allah expanded his chest with the light of Islam, whereas Sahl Tustori said it means with the light of the message and Hassan al-Basri said that Allah filled it with judgment and knowledge. It has also been explained as meaning "Did We not purify your heart so that it prevents any whispering of shaytan?" In the same chapter it says, "and relieved you of your burden that weighed down your back?" 94:2-3. Commentators have explained this as referring to protecting him from any wrong actions prior to his calling to the Prophethood as he was in the status of pardoning and protected from sin, and that "burden" refers to the pre-Islamic days known as "The Time of Ignorance". Both al-Mawardi and Sulami are of the opinion that the meaning refers to the Message that weighed down upon his back before he delivered it. It has also been said by Samarkandi to mean Allah protected him otherwise wrong actions would have burdened his back.

The chapter continues "Have We not raised your remembrance?" 94:4. This verse has been explained by Yahya, Adam ibn refer to the bestowal of the Prophethood to Mohammed. It is also said that the meaning of this is found in the Divine Hadith, "When I am mentioned, you are mentioned with Me in the statement, 'there is no god except Allah, and Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah.'" Our attention is also drawn to the point that it is mentioned and repeated in each Call to Prayer. It is now very clear that these words of Allah confirm the enormity of the favor He bestowed upon Prophet Mohammed, together with the exalted rank he has before Him together with his honourable place. Allah expanded his chest to belief and guidance making it wide enough to contain both the knowledge and wisdom. Allah protected His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) the burden of everything prevalent in "The Age of Ignorance" (Jahiliyya) thereby making them repugnant to him giving victory to His Religion over all previous religions.

The weighty responsibility of the message and Prophethood was lightened for him so that he was able to present the entrusted message sent down to him, to mankind. Allah accentuated the Prophet's superlative position, his tremendous rank, and great prominence by raising his name in the company of His Own Name. Of this Katada said, "Allah exalted his fame in the world and in the Hereafter. There is no one, who offers the prayers who does not say, 'There is no god except Allah, Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah.'" Abu Sayeid al-Khudri narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "Gabriel came to me and said, 'My Lord and your Lord says: Do you know how I have exalted Mohammed's fame? When My Name is mentioned, he is mentioned." Ata's son quoted a Divine Hadith saying, "I completed belief with your being mentioned with Me." And, "I have made your mention next to My mention and whosoever mentions Me, mentions you thereafter." Allah says, "Obey Allah and His Messenger." 3:32 and "Believers, believe in Allah and His Messenger." 4:136. Note how Allah added the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) after Him with the word "and". It is evident and stresses the importance of his favoured, prominent status which was not bestowed upon any other of His prophets or messengers, Hudhayfa informs us that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "No one should say 'What Allah wills and (wa) so-and-so wills,' rather one should say, 'What Allah wills." Then pause and say, 'then so-and-so wills."

Al-Khattabi draws our attention by saying, "The Prophet has guided you to correct behaviour by putting the will of Allah then the will of others." al-Khattabi chose the word 'then' as opposed to the word 'and' because 'and' denotes sequence. At a gathering in which the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was present, someone spoke saying, "Whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has been rightly guided, and whosever disobeys them both …" Whereupon the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) stopped him and said, "What a bad speaker you are, get up" or in another rendering "leave". This was on account of his joining Allah and His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) by using a dual pronoun. Abu Sulayman commented it was because, "He disliked the two names being joined together in that way because of the implication of equality." Whereas as someone else was of the opinion that what he disliked was his stopping at 'whosever disobeys them both.' However, Abu Sulayman's statement is considered to be more correct because it is in compliance with another authentic prophetic saying that reads "Whosoever disobeys them has erred," without pausing after "… whosoever disobeys them."

Allah says, "Allah and His angels praise and venerate the Prophet." 33:56. Some have commented on whether the word "praise" refers to Allah and His angels or not. Some hold it permissible to refer to both whereas it is forbidden by others on account of the notion of partnership. They consider the pronoun refers to the angels alone and conclude that the verse means "Allah praises and venerates the Prophet, and His angels praise and venerate the Prophet." The Caliph Omar (may Allah be satisfied with him) said to the Prophet

(peace and blessing be upon him) "Part of your excellence is that He made obedience to you, obedience to Him." Allah says, "Whosoever obeys the Messenger, indeed he has obeyed Allah." 4:80, and "Say (Prophet Mohammed), 'If you love Allah, follow me and Allah will love you.'" 3:31. When this verse was sent down the unbelievers said, "Mohammed wants us to take him as being a mercy to us in the same way the Christians took Jesus as a mercy!" Thereafter Allah sent down the verse, "Say, 'Obey Allah and the Messenger.'" 3:32. Allah linked obedience to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) with obedience to Himself thereby negating the claim of the unbelievers.

Some scholars of Islam differ in the explanation of the verses "Guide us to the Straight Path, the Path of those upon whom You have favored." 1:6-7. Abul Aliyyah and al-Hassan Basri are of the opinion that the Straight Path is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) who is the best of the People of his House and his Companions. Referring to "the Path of those upon whom You have favored" al-Hassan Basri also commented, "By Allah, it is true, and it is good advice. Makki was of a similar opinion and said, "This refers to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and his two Companions, Abu Bakr and Omar, may Allah be pleased with them."

Abu Abdur Rahman Sulami quoted a scholar of Islam as saying in reference to the "firmest tie" in the following verse, "and believes in Allah has grasped the firmest tie" 2:256 that it is Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) It has also been said that it is Islam or the witnessing of the Oneness of Allah "There is no god except Allah." Allah says, "If you count the blessings of Allah, you will never number them." 4:34. Sahi Tustori explains this verse as referring to the blessings we receive on account of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). The consensus of Islamic scholars upon the verse of Allah that reads, "And he who comes with the truth, and confirms it" 39:33 refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) who brought the truth. Another scholar added, "It s he who confirmed it." The Arabic word in the verse is read in two ways one of its meanings being 'spoke the truth' and refers to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and the other meaning 'confirmed it' refers to believers. Amongst other commentaries it is said that the word "confirmed" refers to Abu Bakr or Ali. Mujahid said explaining the words of Allah "and whose hearts find comfort in the remembrance of Allah." 13:28 are in reference to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) and his Companions.

 

Section 2: Allah made His Prophet a witness over mankind; a description of this praiseworthy and honourable rank

 

Allah says, "O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, and to bear warning, a caller to Allah by His permission and as a light shedding lamp." 33:45-46. It is learned from this verse that Allah endowed His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) with every noble rank and praiseworthy quality and that by conveying the Message He made him a witness of his nation which was one of his special, praiseworthy qualities. He is the one who brought the good news for all people who obey him, and warned those who opposed the Message he delivered. His Message called to the Oneness of Allah, and that it is He alone that should be worshiped. Allah described him as a "light shedding lamp" with which he guided to the truth.

Ata, Yasar's son met Abdullah, Amr's son, who was the son of al-As and asked him to described the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him). He said, "Indeed, by Allah some of the characteristics described in the Quran are found in the Torah that reads, 'O Prophet, We will send him as a witness, a bringer of good tidings and as a warner and a

refuge for the unlettered. He is My worshipper and My Messenger, I will name him the one upon whom people rely. He will be neither uncouth nor vulgar, nor yet shout in the market-place or repay evil with evil, rather he will pardon and forgive. Allah will not return him to Himself until the crooked nation has been straightened by him and they declare 'There is no god except Allah!' Through him, eyes that were blind, ears that were deaf and hearts that were covered will be opened." A similar narration is reported by Abdullah, Salaam's son and Ka'b al-Ahbar.

Isaac's son quoted description of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) in the Torah saying, "Who neither shouts in the market-place nor uses obscene language or indecent words. I open him to every excellent quality and will give him every noble characteristic. I will make tranquility his robe, devotion his axiom, fear of Me his conscience, wisdom his understanding, truthfulness and loyalty his nature, pardon and good ethics his character, justice his demeanour, truth his jurisprudence, guidance his leader, submission (Islam) his religion and his name is Praiser (Ahmed). I will guide him after there has been a lack of guidance, and I will teach him after ignorance. I will raise him after obscurity and make his name known after being unknown. I will give him in abundance after there has been scarcity. I will enrich him after poverty and gather him after separation. I will unite hearts that have been divided, and scattered passions and separate communities through him. I will make his nation (all who believe him) the best nation that has ever come forth to people."

The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) told his Companions of his description in the Torah, "My worshiper, Praiser (Ahmed), the Chosen, born in Mecca who will migrate to Medina (or he said Tayyibah) his nation will be those who praise Allah in every situation." In the Quran Allah tells us, "And to those who shall follow the Messenger-the Unlettered Prophet (Mohammed) whom they shall find written with them in the Torah and the Gospel. He will order kindness upon them and forbid them to do evil. He will make good things lawful to them and prohibit all that is foul. He will relieve them of their burdens and of the shackles that had weighed upon them. Those who believe in him and honour him, those who aid him and follow the light sent forth with him shall surely prosper." 7:157.

Allah also says, "It was by the Mercy of Allah that you (Prophet Mohammed) dealt so leniently with them. Had you been hardhearted, they would have surely deserted you. Therefore ask forgiveness for them. Take counsel with them in the matter and when you are resolved, put your trust in Allah. Allah loves those who trust." 3:157. Samarkandi commented upon this verse saying, "Allah reminds them that He made His Messenger merciful to believers, compassionate and lenient. If he had been harsh and spoken to them sternly they would have deserted him. But Allah made him generous, tolerant, kind and gentle." Abul Hassan al-Qabisi explained the verse "And so We have made you a median nation, in order that you will be a witness above people, and that the Messenger be a witness above you." 2:143 saying, "Allah makes the excellence of our Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) very clear and also the excellence of his nation."

By "median nation" Allah means a nation that is both balanced and good. The meaning of the next verses "And in this so that the Messenger can be a witness for you and in order that you be witnesses against mankind." 2:143. And "How then shall it be when We bring forward from every nation a witness, and bring you (Prophet Mohammed) to witness against those!" 4:41 is, as Allah guided you, We chose and preferred you by making you an excellent balanced nation and also to permit you to be witnesses for the previous prophets against their nations, and Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) will be a truthful witness for you. It is narrated that when Allah asks the prophets, if they conveyed

the Message, they will affirm having done so, but their nation will say, "No bearer of glad tidings or a warner has come to us." 5:19. It is then that the nation of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) will bear witness on behalf of the prophets and the prophets will endorse their testimony. It is explained that everyone of you believing readers will be a witness over the other nations and that Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) is a witness over us.

As for those who believe, Allah says, "and bear the glad tidings to those who believe that they have a firm standing with their Lord." 10:2. Katada together with Hassan al-Basri and Zayid, explained "firm standing" refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) who will intercede for believers on the Day of Judgement. al-Hassan also added "It is the giving of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) to believers." In addition Sahl Tustori explained that it is the mercy Allah had pre-ordained and placed in Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). Mohammed son of Ali Tirmidhi further expounded saying, "He is the leader of the truthful, and the true. He is the one whose intercession is accepted, and the one whose supplication is answered."

 

Section 3: The kindness and gentleness of Allah towards the Prophet

 

Allah said, "Allah has pardoned you. Why did you give them leave (to stay behind) until it was clear to you which of them was truthful and knew those who lied?" 9:43. The kindness and gentleness of Allah is demonstrated in this verse. Awn, Abdullah's son draws our attention to the gentleness of Allah who tells His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) that He had pardoned him by referring to his status of continuous pardon before He mentions his minor mistake if any. Samarkandi reported that he had heard it explained that Allah protected His Prophet, and made his heart sound. If he had first been addressed with the words "why did you give them leave" then his heart would have been so stricken that it might almost have burst from the terror of these words. But instead, Allah first told him that he had been pardoned, and thereby caused the soothing of his heart.

It is easy for all to understand and recognize that this is yet another demonstration of the high rank and honour in which the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is held by Allah that he is the subject of His kindness, and if the depth of this kindness were to be known to us our hearts would most surely burst. Naftoyah discredited the claim that some people were of the opinion that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was rebuked in this verse. The opposite is the case, he was in fact preferred by it. When he gave them leave, Allah informed him that if it had not been so then they would have still remained in their state of hypocrisy, therefore no objection can be raised as to their having been given leave.

In an effort to follow the Islamic code of life, Muslims should strive hard and try to achieve the ethics outlined in the Quran, not only in words, but in action, search and communication. This is the accurate foundation of knowledge and the arena of acceptable behaviour in both religion and in one's everyday affairs. This superb kindness should not be neglected when one supplicates to the Lord of all lords, the One from whom all blessings flow, the One who is not in need of a single thing. The benefits of this verse should not be overlooked, they should be well heeded. Notice how Allah begins by first honouring him, then gently draws attention to the mistake, and there is pleasure in granting pardon before even the mention of the mistake if in fact there was a mistake.

Allah says, "And if We had not fortified you, you would have been very slightly inclining towards them." 12:74. This verse demonstrates the greatest possible concern Allah has for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). Previously prophets were admonished, in the case of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) he was gently advised, thereby the gentle advice was more effective and a greater indication of His love becomes apparent. Pay attention to the way in which Allah begins by expressing His fortification and security, before mentioning His gentle advice to the very slight inclination so that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) did not dwell on it. His innocence remained intact whilst being gently advised so that he was not vulnerable on account of the gentle advising, his honour and security remained untarnished.

This is applicable to the verse "We know what they say saddens you. It is not you that they belie; but the harmdoers deny the verses of Allah." 6:33. This verse was sent down when Abu Jahl denied the authenticity of the Message when he said to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "We do not call you a liar. We say that what you have brought is a lie." It has also been narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was saddened when his tribesmen belied him whereupon the Archangel Gabriel, peace be upon him, visited him and asked, "What saddens you?" to which he replied, 'My tribesmen belie me." Gabriel then informed him "They know you are telling the truth." It was soon after Allah sent down this verse. This verse is full of kindness and gently consoles the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). It also affirms that he is indeed held to be truthful by all and they are not denying him personally.

Even before he was called to the Prophethood, all and sundry knew him to be trustworthy. With the sending down of this verse his sadness that others now thought him to be a liar was removed. After this consolation, Allah censures those who belie by referring to them as harmdoers saying "but the harmdoers belie the verses of Allah." Allah removes His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) from dishonour and then classifies the deniers on account of their denial of His signs as being arrogant. One should realize that belying arises when a person has knowledge of something but chooses to deny it. Allah makes this very clear in the verse, "They denied them unjustly out of pride, though their souls acknowledged them." 27:14.

In another verse Allah further consoles His beloved Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) saying, "Messengers indeed were belied before you, yet they became patient with that which they were belied and were hurt until Our help came to them." 6:34. It is also of note that Allah addresses all His other prophets and messengers by their name, for example "O Adam", "O Noah' "O Abraham", "O Moses" "O David," "O Jesus". "O Zachariah", and "O John" however, from His kindness and honouring His last Prophet, He addresses Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) with a title such as "O Messenger" 5:67, "O Prophet" 33:45, "O Wrapped" 73:1, "O Cloaked" 74:1.

 

Section 4: The Swearing of Allah to his immense value

 

Allah says, "By your life, they wandered blindly in their bedazzlement." 15:72. There is a consensus of scholastic opinion in this verse that Allah swore by the length of Prophet Mohammed's life and means "By your continuation, O Mohammed." This is yet another indication of the great respect and honour in which Allah holds Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). Abbas' son explained, "Allah did not create nor yet did He originate or make any soul more honoured than that of Mohammed, and I never heard of an oath taken by Allah on the life of anyone else." Abu al-Jawza further explained that Allah did not swear on the life of anyone else other than (Prophet) Mohammed because he

is the noblest in status of His creation. Allah opens the chapter "YaSeen" saying, "YaSeen. By the Wise Quran" 36:12.

There is a difference of opinion among scholars upon the meaning of "YaSeen". Abu Mohammed Makki reported that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "I have been given ten names with my Lord" and mentioned two, "Taha" and "YaSeen". Jaafar Sadiq said that its meaning refers to the Prophet "O master" whereas Abbas' son said that it means "O man". He also said that it is an oath, and one of the Names of Allah. On the other hand al-Hanafiyah's son said the meaning of it is "O Mohammed" and Ka'b said it refers to an oath Allah made a thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, and means "O Mohammed, you are one of the Messengers." The verse that follows reads, "you are truly among the Messengers sent upon a Straight Path." 36:3-4. Allah assured that he is among the Messengers bearing His Revelation to His worshipers and that he is indeed upon the Straight Path by his belief. Then again if one inclines to the interpretation of the meaning of YaSeen as being "O master", the title is a distinct demonstration of the high esteem Allah has for him, and this is fortified by the statement of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "I am the master of the children of Adam, and this is not boastful."

Allah says, "No, I swear by this country and you are a lodger in this country." 90:1-2. Makki, referring to the word "No" commented that it does not mean the negation of the sentence. What it does mean is that Allah swears by it while you, Mohammed, reside in it and what you do in it is permissible. It has also been explained that the word "country" refers to Mecca. Al-Wasiti explained the verse as meaning that Allah swears by this country, the country which He honoured and blessed, as it is there that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) lived and it is there that he will be buried. However, the first interpretation of the two meanings is considered to be more accurate because the chapter was revealed in Mecca and it was there that he lodged. Ata's son says something similar when commenting on the words "by this safe country" 95:2. He explained, "Allah made it a safe place because the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was there and his presence imparts security wherever he is."

Of the verse "and by the giver of birth, and whom he fathered," 90:3 it has been said that this refers to Adam and consequently a general statement. Some are of the opinion that it refers to Abraham and his sons, which leads to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). In either event the chapter swears by Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) twice. There have been various interpretations of the meaning of the opening verses in the Cow chapter in which Allah says, "Alif Laam Meem. That is the Book, where there is no doubt." 2:1-2. Abbas' son said, that the opening letters Alif Laam Meem are oaths sworn by Allah. Sahl Tustori commented, the letter "Alif" is Allah, the letter "Laam" is Archangel Gabriel and "Meem" is Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). Samarkandi was likeminded and further commented that it means Allah sent the Archangel Gabriel to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) with the Book in which there is no doubt.

Referring to the opening verse of chapter 50, "Qaaf. By the Glorious Quran." 50:1 Ata's son said, "This is the swearing of Allah by the strength of the heart of His beloved Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) because he was able to bear the impact of both His speech and witnessing due to his exalted position." Other commentators have expressed other opinions. Jaafar, Mohammed's son interpreted the verse "By the star when it plunges,” 53:1 with the meaning, that it is Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) and that "the star" is his heart and when it plunges its light expands and he

is severed from everything in the remembrance of Allah alone. Of the opening verses in chapter 89, "By the dawn and ten nights" 89:1-2 Ata's son commented "the dawn" refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) because it is from him that belief dawns.

 

Section 5: The Oath of Allah confirming the position of Prophet

 

In the chapter "Mid-Morning" Allah says, "By the mid-morning, and by the night when it covers, your Lord has not forsaken you (Prophet Mohammed), nor does He hate you. The Last shall be better for you than the First. Your Lord will give you, and you will be satisfied. Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? Did He not find you a wanderer so He guided you? Did He not find you poor and suffice you? Do not oppress the orphan, nor drive away the one who asks. But tell of the favors of your Lord!" Chapter 93. The third verse addressed the rumors circulated by the unbelievers that Allah had forsaken His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) on account of a period in time when no verses or chapters of the Quran had been sent down to him. This chapter proved that Allah had never forsaken him. The insight of this is that Revelations are of three types, one is the Holy Quran, another Divine Quotations and the other Prophetic quotations. The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said that he was given the Quran and twice of its likeness in size.

The difference between the category of Quran Revelation and other categories is that there is a built in challenge that no one can compose anything like it, whereas the other categories have prophetic styles which are the most elite among the Arabs. The unbelievers were unaware of these fine details and were forever seeking ways in which they might discredit the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and seized upon the opportunity and consequently concocted rumors, not knowing that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was continuously in the assembly of angels and receiving light and wisdom and the other categories of Revelation. After having addressed the complaint of the unbelievers, it further demonstrates the certain assurance of the honour in which Allah holds His beloved Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) together with His praising and the care He has for him which is made evident in six different ways.

 

  1. First of all, the opening verses of this chapter "By the mid-morning, and by the night when it covers," is amongst one of the highest forms of esteem Allah has for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him).

 

  1. Secondly, Allah clarifies his situation, and favors saying, "your Lord has not forsaken you (Prophet Mohammed), nor does He hate you." In other words, Allah has not abandoned him, and He makes it very clear that He does not hate him. It has also been said, that Allah did not neglect him after choosing him, neither did He despise him.

 

  1. Thirdly, note the words, "The last shall be better for you than the first" Isaac's son explained the meaning of this verse to be that when he returned to Allah his honour is even greater than the honour given to him in this world. Sahl Tustori said that it refers to the intercession granted to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and the praiseworthy station Allah has reserved especially for him, which is greater than he was given in this life.

 

  1. Fourthly, from the verse "your Lord will give you, and you will be satisfied" we learn not only of his honour in this world and in the Hereafter but the happiness and blessings in both. Isaac's son explained that Allah will satisfy him by sending relief in this world and also reward him in the Everlasting life where he will be given the Pool of Kawthar, the grand right of intercession and the praised status. Referring to this verse, a member of the Prophet's family said, "The Quran contains no other verse that has more hope than this one and we know that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) will not be satisfied if any of his nation enters the Fire."

 

  1. Fifthly, in the verses "Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? Did He not find you a wanderer so He guided you? Did He not find you poor and suffice you?" our attention is drawn to the blessings bestowed upon him by Allah together with His favors, which include, the guidance of people through him or his guidance. He had no property, yet Allah enriched him, or, it has been said, that it refers to the contentment and wealth He placed in his heart. He was an orphan but his uncle took care of him and it was with him that he found shelter. It has also been explained as meaning that he found shelter with Allah and that the meaning of "orphan" is that there was no other like him and Allah sheltered him. As for the verses "Did He not find you a wanderer so He guided you? Did He not find you poor and suffice you? Do not oppress the orphan," Allah reminds His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) of these blessings and that even before Allah called him to the Prophethood, He never neglected him either when he was a young orphan or when he was poor. Rather, He called him to the Prophethood and had neither abandoned him nor hated him. How could He do so after He had chosen him!

 

  1. Sixthly, in this verse Allah tells Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) "But tell of the favors of your Lord!" to announce the blessings given to him by Allah and to be thankful for the honour He bestowed upon him. This verse is also applicable to his nation that they tell of the favors of Allah in sending Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) to them and making them witnesses over other nations.

 

The first eighteen verses of chapter 53, "The Star" are yet another example and reads, "By the star when it plunges, your companion is neither astray, neither errs, nor does he speak out of desire. Indeed it is not except a Revelation which is revealed taught by One who is Stern in power. Of might, he stood firm while he was in the highest horizon; then he drew near, and became close, he was but two bows' length or even nearer, so (Allah) revealed to His worshiper that which he revealed (to Prophet Mohammed). His heart did not lie of what he saw. What, will you dispute with him about what he sees! Indeed, he saw him in another descent at the Lote Tree of the Ending close to the Garden of Refuge. When there comes to the Lote Tree that which comes his eyes did not swerve, nor did they stray for indeed he saw one of the greatest signs of his Lord." 53:1

 

There is a difference of scholarly opinion concerning the word "star", some say it means exactly that whereas others say its meaning is the Quran. Jaafar, Mohammed's son said it refers to the heart of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). Similar meanings have been expressed in respect of the verses in "The Nightly Comer" where Allah swears, "By the sky, and the nightly comer! What could let you know what the nightly comer is! (It is) the piercing star." 86:1-3 and that the "star" refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). The excellence and honour in which Allah holds His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) abounds in the chapter "The Star". It is clear that Allah established on oath His guidance of the Prophet, his truthfulness in the recitation of the Quran, which was sent down with the Archangel Gabriel, who is strong

and powerful, to him directly from Allah, and that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is rendered free from all self-desire. Then again in the chapter "The Nightly Comer" Allah reiterates his excellence and tells of his reaching the Lote tree near the Garden of Refuge, and the certainty of his unswerving sight upon seeing one of the greatest signs of His Lord. Allah also tells us of this great event in the opening verses of the chapter "The Night Journey."

 

Allah revealed to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) His Mighty Unseen Kingdom where he saw the wonders of the angelic realm that can neither be expressed in words nor yet possible for human intellect to endure hearing, not even in its minutest atom. In the verse "so (Allah) revealed to His worshiper that which He revealed" there is in the opinion of scholars, a subtle indication to the high estimation Allah has for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as it is a most eloquent form of expression. Allah says, "he saw one of the greatest signs of his Lord." 53:18. Our limited understanding is unable to grasp the details of what was actually revealed and ultimately becomes lost in any attempt to define what was the great sign. In these verses Allah mentions Prophet Mohammed's absolute state of purity and the protection he received during this miraculous journey. In reference to his heart, Allah says "His heart did not lie of what he saw", of his tongue He says, "nor does he speak out of desire", of his eye He says, "his eyes did not swerve, nor did they stray."

 

Allah says, "Rather, I swear by the returning, orbiting, disappearing; by the night when it approaches and the morning when it extends, it is indeed the word of an Honourable Messenger, of power, given a rank by the Owner of the Throne obeyed, honest. Your Companion is not mad, in truth he saw him on the clear horizon, he is not grudging of the Unseen. Nor is this the word of a stoned Satan." 81:15-25. Scholars explained the meaning of these verses saying, "Allah swears that this is the word of an Honourable Messenger who has an honourable rank with Him, having the power to communicate the Revelation, and that his position is both secure and firm with his Lord. He is obeyed in the heavens and trusted to deliver the Revelation."

 

The consensus of scholars is that the preceding verses refer to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). Jesus Rumani's son holds the opinion that the 'Honourable Messenger' refers to Prophet Mohammed, peace and blessing be upon him, and consequently all the qualities belong to him. Whereas other scholars hold the opinion that rather than it being in reference to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) it is in reference to the Archangel Gabriel therefore the qualities are his. They also say that the verse "in truth he saw him" the 'him' refers to Gabriel. It has also been said that "not grudging" means that when the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) supplicates to Allah he is neither grudging nor doubts the Unseen. It has also been explained that it refers to his mentioning the wisdom and knowledge of Allah.

Another great oath is found in the chapter "The Pen" in which Allah starts with the mystical letter "Noon". "Noon. By the Pen and that (the angels) write, you are not, because of the favor of your Lord, mad. Indeed, there is an unfailing wage for you. Surely, you (Prophet Mohammed) are of a great morality." 68:14. The unbelievers held the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) in distain. They rejected him and attributed many falsehoods to him. In these verses Allah swears a great oath that His chosen Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) he is free from all their assertions making his heart joyous and increases his hope when Allah gently comforts him saying "you are not, because of the favor of your Lord, mad." This verse is one of very great respect and also displays the highest level of conversational manners.

Allah informs His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "Indeed, there is an unfailing wage for you." The meaning of this has been explained that Allah has in store for him everlasting blessings, a wage that will never fail, a wage that although uncountable will not be a cause for indebtedness. This is followed by the great attestation of Allah that garlands his praiseworthy qualities, "Surely, you are of a great morality." Apart from the verse meaning exactly that, the verse has also been explained as referring to the Holy Quran, whereas others say it is Islam. It has also been said that it means the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was without any desire other than Allah. Al-Wasiti explained that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was praised for his absolute acceptance of the multiple blessings given to him by Allah, and that He preferred him by adorning him with this mighty characteristic. Judge Iyyad supplicates saying "Exaltations be to the Subtle, the Generous, the All Praised who eased for us the doing of good things and guided people to do them. He praises whosever does good and rewards them for its doing. Exaltations be to Him! His blessings are abundant, and His favours are vast!”

The chapter continues to console the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) for the detrimental things said against him, saying "You shall see and they will see which of you is the demented. Indeed, your Lord knows very well those who strayed from His Path, and those who are guided." 68:5-7. Having praised Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) Allah exposes his enemies by revealing the crudeness of their character and wickedness by mentioning their foul qualities. Allah says, "Therefore, do not obey those who belie, they wish you would compromise, then, they would compromise. And do not obey every mean swearer, the backbiter who goes about slandering, those who hinder good, the guilty aggressor, the crude of low character because he has wealth and sons. When Our verses are recited to him, he says, 'They are but fairy-tales of the ancients.'" 68:8-15. In the verse that follows their impending punishment together with their ruin is made very clear. Allah says, "We shall mark them on the nose!" 68:16. These words of Allah are far more effective than anything the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) might say, and the confounding of his enemies is also more effective than anything he might do.

 

Section 6: The mentioning of Allah of the Prophet's compassionate and generous disposition

 

Allah says, "TaHa. We have not sent down the Quran to you for you to be tired." 20:1-2. There are various opinions regarding the meaning to "TaHa" one of which is that it is a name given to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) whereas others say it is amongst the Names of Allah. It has also been said that it refers to separate letters having different meanings. al-Wasiti explained that it means "O Pure, O Guide" derived from the Arabic words "Tahir" and "Hadi" respectively. Rabi, Anass' son tells us that the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) prayed diligently throughout most of the night and that on occasions he saw him standing first on one foot and then upon the other to stay awake. It has been said that the word "Taha" consists of two parts, "ta" and "ha". As for "ta" it is from the verb "to tread" and "ha" refers to the earth, which implies stand on both feet so as not to tire yourself, and it was on this account that Allah out of compassion for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) revealed this verse. All the explanations clearly point to his honour and we have a glimpse into his excellent manners, and whether it is said that "Taha" is one of his names or an oath, it remains a demonstration of both compassion and care.

In other chapters Allah says of His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "Yet perchance, if they do not believe in this tiding, you will consume yourself with grief and

follow after them." 18:6. "Perhaps you consume yourself that they are not believers, if We will, We can send down on them a sign from heaven before which their necks will remain humbled." 26:3-4. Allah also says, "Proclaim then what you are commanded and turn away from the unbelievers. We suffice you against those who mock and those who set up other gods with Allah, indeed, they will soon know. Indeed, We know your chest is straitened by that they say." 15:94-97. And, "Other Messengers were mocked before you but I respited the unbelievers, then I seized them. And how was My retribution! 13:32 Makki explained, "The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) suffered on account of the unbelievers so Allah sent down verses to console him thereby making it easy for him and at the same time informed him of the outcome of those who persisted."

Our attention is drawn again in the following verses that say, "If they belie you, other Messengers have been belied before you. To Allah all matters return." 35:4 and, "Similarly, no Messenger came to those before them but they said, 'Sorcerer, or mad!' 51:54 The preceding verses were sent to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as a means of solace and to inform him that his predecessors also endured similar sayings. As for those who persisted Allah made it easy for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and told him, "So turn away from them, you shall not be blamed." 51:54. In other words Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) had conveyed the message and therefore was not subject to blame. The compassion of Allah is further expressed in the following verse as well as many other verses, "And be patient under the Judgement of your Lord, surely, you are before Our Eyes." 52:48. This is yet a further demonstration that he is constantly under the sight and protection of Allah, and that he should remain patient with their harm-doing.

 

Section 7: The way in which Allah praised the excellent qualities of His Prophet

 

Allah says, "And when Allah took the covenant of the Prophets, 'That I have given you of the Book and Wisdom. Then there shall come to you a Messenger (Mohammed) confirming what is with you, you shall believe in him and you shall support him to be victorious, do you agree and take My load on this?' They answered, 'We do agree.' Allah said, 'Then bear witness, and I will be with you among the witnesses.'" 3:81 Abul Hassan al-Kabasi draws our attention to the fact that in this verse Allah selected Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) out of all His Prophets and Messengers, and this excellence was not given to anyone else. Commentators said that Allah described Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) to each and every prophet and messenger before they were sent to their nation, and took a covenant from each that if he met him he must believe him. It has also been said that the covenant entailed informing their nation of his impending coming together with his description. The phrase, "Then there shall come to you a Messenger" is addressed to the Jews and Nazarenes/Christians who were the forerunners.

Ali, Abu Talib's son and others added that from the time of Prophet Adam, Allah made a covenant with each prophet and messenger to believe and help Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) if he should happen to appear during their time. And that it was incumbent upon each them to take a covenant with their nation to the same effect. Allah says, "We took from the Prophets their covenant and from you (Prophet Mohammed) from Noah and Abraham, from Moses and Jesus the son of Mary." 33:7. And, "We have revealed to you as We revealed to Noah and to the Prophets after him, and We revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron and Solomon, and We gave to David the Psalms. And Messengers of whom We have narrated

to you before, and Messengers of whom We did not narrate to you. Certainly, Allah talked to Moses. Messengers bearing glad tidings and warning, so that the people will have no Argument against Allah, after the Messengers. Allah is the Almighty, the Wise." 4:163-165.

Upon the passing of Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) Omar Al-Khattab's son said as he mourned the loss. "May my father and mother be your ransom. O Messenger of Allah, it has been revealed that a fraction of your excellence before Allah is that He sent you as His last Prophet whilst mentioning you among the first of them. 'We took from the Prophets their covenant and from you from Noah'. May my father and mother be your ransom! O Messenger of Allah, it has been revealed that a fraction of your excellence with Allah is that the people of the Fire will wish they had obeyed you even when they are being severely punished and will say, 'Would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger!' 33:66."

The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) told his followers, "Of all the prophets I was the first to be created and the last of them to be sent." This is why he was mentioned before Noah and the other prophets. Samarkandi explained, "Because Allah distinguished him by mentioning him before the other prophets-despite the fact that he was the last of them to be sent-means that the covenant between Allah and them was made when He brought them out from the back of Adam like small ants." Referring to the words "Of these Messengers, We have preferred some above others" in the verse "Of these Messengers, We have preferred some above others. To some Allah spoke, and some He raised in rank." 2:253 it has been explained that this phrase refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) because he was sent for all mankind. Allah also made the spoils of war lawful to him (which were unlawful to previous prophets) and gave to him superior miracles. No other prophet was given a virtue or an honourable rank without Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) being given its equivalent or higher. It has also been said that a glimpse of his excellence is that Allah addresses him in the Holy Quran using titles such as O Prophet, O Messenger whereas He calls the other prophets by their names. Commenting on the verse "Of his party was Abraham" 37:83 al-Kalbi said, the word "his” refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) because Abraham was of his party, religion and path. However, it has also been said by Makki that it refers to Prophet Noah, peace be upon him.

 

Section 8: The Command of Allah to His creation to praise the Prophet, His protection of him and the removal of punishment on account of him

 

Referring to the period when the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) lived in Mecca Allah said, "But Allah was not to punish them whilst you were living in their midst." 8:33 After the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Medina some Muslims remained in Mecca and the verse continues to say, "Nor would Allah punish them if they repeatedly ask forgiveness of Him." Several years later the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) led his unarmed followers from Medina to Mecca on pilgrimage, however, before they reached Mecca they encountered resistance from the unbelievers of Mecca and were prevented from entering. Unknown to the Muslims of Medina there were converts who had yet to migrate still living in Mecca and because of them Allah sent down the verses, "If it had not been for certain believing men and certain believing women whom you did not know, you might have trampled upon them, and so sin reached you because of (killing) them while you did not know." 48:25

From these verses the exalted position of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is clearly recognizable. If it had not been for him the punishment would indeed have immediately fallen on the Meccans, because Allah says, "And why should Allah not punish them" 8:34. Their punishment was postpone firstly on account of the Prophet's presence amongst them, then because of the presence of his followers. After all the Muslims had migrated to Medina before Mecca was opened the only people to remain in Mecca were the unbelievers, but upon its opening the victory of the Muslims was established and the unbelievers punished by having to accept defeat. It was then that the property of the Muslims that had once been seized by the unbelievers was restored to their rightful owners.

The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "I am a guarantee for my Companions." It has been said that this means against innovation whilst others are of the opinion that it means against disagreement and disorder. Another scholar said that the meaning of this quotation is that the Messenger, was during his life time, the greatest guarantee and he will be present as long as his way is followed and that upon its abandoning affliction and disorder are to be expected.

In chapter 33, "The Confederates" there is a verse in which Allah Himself makes clear the value of His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) He says "Allah and His angels praise and venerate the Prophet. Believers, praise and venerate him and pronounce peace upon him in abundance." 33:56. Note how He begins the verse by referring to Himself first in the praise and veneration of Prophet Mohammed, then Allah makes it known that the angels do the same. Finally, one becomes aware of the order that all believers are obligated to ask Allah to praise and venerate our beloved Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) The saying of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "The coolness of my eye is in the prayer" has been explained by Abu Balr, Furak's son as meaning the praise of Allah, then that of His angels followed by the response to the obligation of his nation up until the Day of Resurrection. He went on to explain that the praise of the angels and his nation is the supplication upon him and the mercy of Allah towards him. It has also been said that "believers, praise" the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) who taught his Companions the supplication of praising upon himself, he made a distinction between the Arabic words "salat" meaning praying to Allah, by bowing and prostrating and "salat" meaning praising the Prophet.

Chapter 19 ”Maryam" opens with the mystical letters "Kaaf Ha Ya 'aeen Saad." It has been explained that the letter "Kaaf" is from the word "kifayah" meaning suffice, and that Allah is sufficient for His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). This explanation is realized by the verse "Is it not that Allah suffices His worshiper" 39:36, with the letter "Ha" referring to the "hidayah" guidance of Allah as in the verse "and guides you on a Straight Path" 48:2. "Ya" as in the word "ta'aed" means support, and refers to the support of Allah as in the verse "And remember how He gave you shelter" 8:26. As for the letter "Saad" it has been explained as meaning the praise of Allah for him as realized in the verse "Allah and His angel praise and venerate the Prophet." 33:56. Allah also says "But if you support one another against him, (know that) Allah is his Guardian and Gabriel, and the righteous among the believers." 66:4. There are two explanations for the phrase "righteous among the believers" one is that it refers to the prophets and the other is that the meaning is as it is read.

 

Section 9: The honour of the Prophet as expounded in the chapter Al-Fatiha-"The Opening"

 

Allah commences the Chapter "The Opening" with the verses "Indeed, We have opened for you (Prophet Mohammed) a clear opening, that Allah forgives your past and future sins,

and completes His Favour to you, and guides you on a Straight Path, and that Allah helps you with a mighty help. It was He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers so that they might add belief upon belief. To Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. Allah is the Knower, the Wise. (From His Wisdom) He admits the believers, both men and women, into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, there to live forever, and acquit them of their sins-that with Allah is a mighty triumph-and that He might punish the hypocrites and the idolaters, both men and women, and those who think evil thoughts of Allah. An evil turn (of fortune) will befall them. The Wrath of Allah is on them, and He has cursed them and prepared for them Gehennam (Hell), an evil arrival! To Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. Allah is the Almighty, and the Wise. We have sent you (Prophet Mohammed) as a witness and a bearer of glad tidings and warning so that you believe in Allah and His Messenger and that you support him, revere him (Prophet Mohammed) and exalt Him (Allah), at the dawn and in the evening. Those who swear allegiance to you swear allegiance to Allah. The Hand of Allah is above their hands. He who breaks his oath breaks it against his self, but he that keeps his covenant made with Allah, Allah shall give him a mighty wage." 48:1-10. These verses denote yet again not only the favour, praise, and nobility of the Prophet's rank but also portray the blessings of Allah towards His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) all of which we are only partially capable of understanding.

In the opening verse Allah announces to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) that He will make him victorious over his enemies, and how His word and law will govern. He tells him that he will not be held accountable for past or future actions and that he is forgiven. "Allah forgives your past and future sins," has been explained by a scholar of Islam that Allah gave the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) the status of pardoning and forgiveness and that status becomes apparent by His addressing the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) with forgiving his sins though he has no major or minor sin because his satan became a Muslim and his self ordered him only to do good, so addressing him with forgiveness is only in the abstract and not for practical reasons to correct any fault because there are none. In return to this some of this forgiveness will transcend to his Companions and followers.

Another scholar said that "Allah forgives your past and future sins," means forgiveness for what had occurred and what had not occurred. Makki, on the other hand it is said, "Allah has made favor a cause for forgiveness and that everything comes from Him because there is no god except Him. Favour upon favour and bounty upon bounty." The second verse continues, "and completes His Favor to you". Scholars said that this is brought about by the humiliation of those who were arrogant. It has also been said that Allah is referring to the opening of Mecca and Ta'if. In addition to these explanations it has been said that it means the elevation of the Prophet's status in this life, the help of Allah, and His forgiveness. In this verse Allah tells him that the completion of His blessings is in humiliating the arrogant enemies of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and the opening of two of the most important cities, Mecca and Ta'if through which the prophetic status is raised because he is guided on the Straight Path which ultimately leads to the Garden and happiness in the Everlasting Life. The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) was always helped by Allah, but the help he received at that time was by far mightier.

The next verse tells of the favour of Allah upon the believers through His blessing towards them by the sending down of tranquillity of their hearts that increased them in belief. Further on He gives the best of news-that of a mighty triumph-to both believing men and women that Allah forgives and acquits them of their sins, and rewards them with the Garden where they shall live forever. Allah then speaks of the punishment of the hypocrites and idolaters in this world and in the Everlasting Life, saying they are cursed

and distanced from His Mercy as their final arrival is an evil place in Hell. Allah says, "We have sent you (Prophet Mohammed) as a witness and as a bearer of glad tidings and warning". In this verse Allah mentions more of the Prophet's excellent qualities and characteristics. He tells us that Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) will be a witness against his nation because it is he who conveyed to them the message entrusted to him by Allah.

It has also been said that it is on behalf of his nation as he will bear witness to the Oneness of Allah. In addition to this He gives good news of the impending reward and forgiveness to those destined for good with the belief in Allah, and His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and warns of the punishment that awaits his wayward enemies. "That you support him, revere him" the consensus is that this refers to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) and that he will be held in high regard by his nation. Ata's son said that this chapter contains a diversity of blessings for the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). For example, "the clear opening" is a sign of answering, "forgives" is an indication of love, and it is freedom from any blemish. "Completes" is another blessing and an indication of his election, and the completed blessing is the attainment of the degree of perfection. "Guides" is an indication of the friendship of Allah with him, and is the summons to the witnessing.

Jaafar, Mohammed's son explained that part of the completed blessing of Allah to His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is that He made him His beloved, that He swore by his life, superseded other laws with the one he brought, and raised him to the highest rank. Allah protected him during the Night Ascent so that his eye did not swerve. He sent him for all mankind and permitted the spoils of war to his nation (that had previously been forbidden to the People of the Book). Allah elevated him to the rank in which his intercession is accepted and made him the master of the descendants of Prophet Adam, peace be upon him. Allah placed Prophet Mohammed's name next to His own Name in many places such as in the proclamation of faith and in the call to prayer.

The chapter continues to say, "Those who swear allegiance to you swear allegiance to Allah." This is in reference to those who gave their allegiance known as Ridwan-the pleasure of Allah. When the Companions swore allegiance to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) their oath of allegiance was to Allah. The pledge is followed by the statement, "The Hand of Allah is above their hands." The word "Hand" is metaphorical and symbolizes the power of Allah, His reward, favor or His bond, and strengthens the undertaking of their pledge to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) him, and at the same time raises the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) to whom their allegiance was given.

In the chapter "The Spoils" verse 17 there is a similarity, "It was not you who killed them, but Allah slew them, neither was it you who threw at them. Allah threw at them". However, in the previous verse it is metaphorical whereas in this verse it is a literal truth because both the Slayer and the Thrower were in reality Allah. The Creator, Allah, is the Creator of actions therefore He was the One who threw, as well as the Giver of power and decision to throw. No person has the power to throw in such a way that the eyes of each and every enemy become filled with dust, and the slaying was the reality of the angel's slaying. This verse has been explained as meaning that the Muslims neither killed them nor did they throw either the stones or sand at their faces. It was Allah who threw terror into their hearts. The meaning of this is that the benefit of the action comes directly from the action of Allah, and that Allah is both the Slayer and the Thrower and the Companions were the doers in name.

 

Section 10: How Allah expresses His honouring of the Prophet in the Quran and makes clear His position and the esteem with which He regards him together with other blessed matters

 

Part of the honour in which Allah holds His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is found in chapters 17 and 53 "The Night Journey", and "The Star". In these chapters the clarity of the Prophet's exalted, and incomparable rank together with his nearness to Allah are witnessed. In the under-mentioned verses, it is abundantly clear that the protection of Allah is with His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). Allah says, "Allah protects you from the people." 5:67. "And when the unbelievers plotted against you (Prophet Mohammed), they sought to either take you captive or have you killed, or expelled. They plotted-but Allah (in reply) also plotted." 8:30. And, "If you (believers) do not help him, Allah will help him as He helped him when he was driven out with one other (Abu Bakr)." 9:40. When the unbelievers conspired and devised a plot to kill the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) Allah prevented him from being harmed by his enemies by causing a deep slumber to fall upon the unbelievers so that he might pass unseen through their midst.

Then again, in an attempt to prevent the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and Abu Bakr, his honoured companion's migration to Medina the Quraysh set out in hot pursuit from Mecca and searched the caves of its surrounding mountains. As the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) took rest in a cave on the steep slopes of Mount Thawr, Allah caused another protecting miracle to occur. A spider spun a huge web across the entrance of the cave and a pair of pigeons gathered some twigs from a nearby tree, then built a nest beneath the web on the ledge. As the Quraysh started to climb the mountain the female pigeon settled herself on the nest and laid her eggs, whilst her mate perched nearby. As the shouts and tramping of footsteps grew nearer their footsteps could be heard on the ledge directly above the cave. Abu Bakr became alarmed at the thought of being discovered and whispered to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "If they look under their feet they will see us!" In his gentle, reassuring manner, Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) consoled him, saying, "What do you think of two people who have Allah with them as their third?" When Abu Bakr heard these words peace descended upon him and his fear vanished.

Shortly after, one of the search party noticed the cave underneath the ledge on which he was standing and peered over to take a better look at it. When he saw the spider's web and the pigeon sitting on its nest he told the others that it would be a complete waste of time and effort to climb down to check the cave as he was sure it must be empty on account of the nest and the spider's web. Another peered over the ledge and agreed, saying the cobweb was so old that it must have been spun before the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) had even been born! Then again, when after they left the cave and journeyed on to Medina an were spotted by Suraka Malik's son, the protection of Allah encompassed them. These stories are all found in the quotations of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) that narrate the events of his migration to Medina.

The chapter "The River of Abundance" reads, "Indeed, We have given you (Prophet Mohammed) the abundance (Al-Kawthar: river, its pool and springs). So pray to your Lord and sacrifice. Surely, he who hates you, he is the most severed." In this short chapter Allah tells the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) what he has been given. Kawthar has been said to refer to his pool, also it has been said that it is a river in the Garden, profuse blessings, intercession and the multitude of miracles given to him, his Prophethood. The statement "Surely, he who hates you, he is the most severed" refers to his enemies and

those who despise the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). "Severed" bears the meaning of wretched, abased, abandoned, or one who has no good in him whatsoever.

Allah tells his Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) in chapter 15:87. "We have given you the seven duals and the Mighty Holy Reading." There are several explanations to this verse. "The seven duals" have been explained as referring to the first lengthy chapters and that "the Mighty Holy Reading" is the first chapter, "The Opener-Al Fatiha". It has also been said that "the seven duals" is the Mother of the Quran meaning "The Opener" and that the "Mighty Holy Reading" refers to the rest of the Quran. It has also been said that "the seven duals" refer to the commands and prohibitions, good news and warnings. "The Mother of the Quran" has also been said to be the "seven duals" because it is read at least twice in each obligatory prayer. It has also been said that Allah reserved it for Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) and did not give it to the other prophets, or that He called the Quran "the seven duals" because of the repetition of its stories. Finally, it has been said that "the seven duals" bears the meaning that Allah honoured His Prophet with seven distinctions, honour, guidance, prophecy, mercy, intercession, friendship, veneration with tranquillity.

Allah tells His Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) "And We sent down to you the Remembrance so that you can make clear to the people what has been sent down to them, n order that they reflect." 16:44. And, "We did not send you Prophet Mohammed) for all mankind except to bring them glad tidings and to warn." 34:28. And "Say: 'O mankind, I am the Messenger of Allah to you all.'" 7:158 Allah says, "We have sent no Messenger except in the tongue of his own nation." 14:4. This verse specifies the messengers own specific nation. Reflect for a moment and discover yet another special favour granted to Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) the initial sending was when the Archangel Gabriel delivered the message to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) in the tongue of his nation of birth. Thereafter, the message spread over the frontiers where other languages are spoken. These nations checked the veracity of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and many converted then learned the Arabic language, and this is the realization of the Prophet's saying "I was sent for all mankind."

Allah tells us, "The Prophet has a greater right on the believers than their own selves; his wives are their mothers." 33:6. The words "has a greater right on the believers" has been explained that there is an obligation upon all believers to obey his orders in the same way that a slave must obey the order of his master, being obedient to his order is far better than using one's own judgment that is subject to flaws. "His wives are their mothers" means believers must respect the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as they respect their own mothers and for this reason his wives were not permitted to marry anyone after his death-this is yet another indication of the honour in which Allah beholds him, and that his wives will be his wives in the Garden. Allah says, "Allah has sent down to you the Book and the Wisdom… The Bounty of Allah to you is ever great" 4:113. "Is ever great" refers to his Prophethood or that which was given to him in pre-eternity. al-Wasiti said that it is an indication to his ability to endure the vision which Prophet Moses could not endure.