Allah Most High says,
Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure. (Al-Qamar: 49)
In his Tafsir, Ibn Al-Jawzi highlighted two views concerning the occasion of revelation of this verse. The first view is reported by Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the disbelievers of Mecca came to dispute with the Messenger of Allah concerning the Destiny, then the verse was revealed to refute their claims. Abu Umamah, however, is of the opinion that this verse was revealed concerning the so-called fatalism. The second view is that the bishop of Najran came to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and said, "O Muhammad! you claim that sins are predetermined by Allah, but this is a wrong attitude."
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) replied, "You are the enemies of Allah." Then the following verses were revealed: Truly those in sin are the ones in error and madness. The Day they will be dragged through the Fire on their faces, (they will hear.) taste ye the touch of Hell!’ Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure. (Al-Qamar: 47-49)
Umar Ibn al-Khattab said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"On the Day of Judgment, Allah will gather the first and the last of people and then order a caller to say with a clear voice, where are the enemies of Allah?" The fatalists would stand whereupon they would be ordered to go to Hell.” [al-Haithami]
Allah says, Taste ye the touch of Hell! Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.
Those men are called the enemies of Allah because they dispute how Allah predetermines sins and then punishes the sinners thereby.
Hisham Ibn Hassan commented, "By Allah if a fatalist observes continuous fasting until he becomes as thin as thread, or observes continuous Prayer until he becomes as faint as string, Allah would order him to be dragged through the Fire on his face and then say to him taste the touch of Hell! “Verily all things Have We created in proportion and measure.” [Zadd Al-Muyassar, vol 8, p. 102]
Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) the Prophet said,
"Everything runs in accordance with Allah's Destiny even the inability and intelligence.” [Muslim]
Ibn Abbas said, "All things have We created in proportion and measure and they are recorded in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (The Tablet Preserved)."
Allah Most High says,
But Allah has created you and your handiwork! (Al-Saffat: 96)
Ibn Jarir, in his commentary on this verse, said, "The verse is of two indications: First, it may mean that Allah has created you and what you make, i.e., idols."
In Surah Ash-Shams, Allah Most High says,
And its inspiration as to its wrong and its right. (Ash-shams: 8)
Sa'id Ibn Jubair explained the meaning of this verse saying, Allah implants in it the traits of good and the traits of evil.
A hadith states,
"Allah guides some people to the straight way and will grant them mercy. Whereas others go astray in accordance with Allah's Destiny and therefore they will be decreed to Hell-fire with Allah's Justice."
Ibn Zaid stated, "Allah leads it to the way of righteousness or leaves it to go astray in the way of evil." Muadh Ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"There was no prophet sent to people by Allah but amongst his people there were Qadariyyah (fatalists) and Murji'ah (Postponers). Surely, Allah has cursed the Qadariyyah and Murji' ah on the tongues of seventy prophets.” [Reported by Ibn Ibi Asim]
Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"The Qadiriyyah (fatalists) are the Magians of this Ummah.” [Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah]
Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"Each Ummah has Magians and the Magains of this Ummah are those who deny the Destiny of Allah." He added, "If one of them spent an amount of gold equal to Mount Uhud in the way of Allah, Allah will never accept it from him until he believes in the divine Destiny, both the good and the evil thereof." Then he (pbuh) mentioned the hadith, when Jibreel asked about Iman (Faith), "It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in the divine Destiny, both the good and the evil thereof.” [Muslim and Abu Dawud]
"The belief in Allah" means to admit that He, Glorified and Exalted be He, is Existent and deserves all attributes of perfection. He is the One and Only, the Eternal, the Creator Who does what He wills.
"Belief in the angels" means to admit that they are devoted servants of Allah as the Glorious Quran illustrates,
They are (but) servants raised to honor. They speak not before He speaks, and they act (in all things) by His command. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they offer no intercession except for those with whom He is well-pleased and they stand in awe and reverence of His (glory). (Al-Anbiya: 26-28)
"Belief in the Messengers" means to admit that they were truthful men, and delivered what Allah revealed to them in totality. Allah Most High has supported them with miracles as proof of their truthfulness. We owe to them all reverence and make no distinction between them.
"Belief in the last Day" means to believe in the Day of Judgment, in the resurrection after death, is the Hashr (Gathering), in Paradise, in Hell-fire,... etc.
"Belief in the divine Destiny" means to believe in the aforementioned principles and ideas such as the reference in the verses:
But Allah created you and your handiwork. (As-Saffat: 96)
All things have We created in proportion and measure. (Al-Qamar: 49)
Belief in the divine Destiny comprises what was referred to in the Hadith of Ibn Abbas,
"Know that if the Nation were to gather together to benefit you with anything, it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you, and if they gather together to harm you with anything, they would harm you only with something Allah has already prescribed for you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” [Part reported by Tirmidhi]
Muslim scholars, in past and present, have agreed that whoever has unswerving faith in these principles, he will be a true believer.
Seventy Muslim scholars have agreed that the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) includes: Belief in the divine Destiny, submission to the commands of Allah, patience, adherence to the lawful and abstaining from the unlawful, sincerity, the abhorrence of dispute in religion, Jihad, funeral Prayer, etc.
Ascribing Associates To Allah, the Most High (Shirk)
Killing A Human Being
Not Performing The Prayer
Not Paying Zakat
Breaking One's Fast During Ramadan Without An Excuse
Not Performing the Hajj when Able to
Showing Disrespect to One's Parents
Severing the Ties of One's Relatives
Accepting Usurious Gain
Wrong Consuming An Orphan's Property
Lying About The Prophet
Fleeing From The Battlefield
The Leader Who Misleads His Followers, The Tyrant And The Oppressor
Arrogance, Pride, Conceit, Vanity And Haughtiness
Bearing False Witness
Accusing A Woman Of Adultery
Misappropriating Spoils Of War, Muslim Funds Or Zakat
Highwaymen Who Menace The Road
The Engulfing Oath
Taking People's Property Through Falsehood
The Consumption of Haram
The Dishonest Judge
Women Imitating Men And Vice Versa
The Pimp and the one Who Permits His Wife to Fornicate
Marrying Solely To Return To The Previous Husband
Not Freeing Oneself Of All Traces Of Urine
Showing Off In Good Work
Learning Sacred Knowledge For The Sake Of This World, Or Concealing It
Breach of Trust
Reminding Recipients of Ones Charity To Them
Disbelieving In Destiny (qadar)
Listening To People's Private Conversations
The Talebearer Who Stirs Up Enmity Between People
Breaking Promises or Pledges
Believing Fortune Tellers And Astrologers
Wife Rebelling Against Her Husband