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Chapter 37. The Sons Of Adam Do Not Live Except In Societies

Every living thing must, of necessity, entail intentions and wants within itself with which it determines its own actions, and with which it determines the actions of others whenever that is made possible for it. Verily, man is a living thing, he moves with his will and intention, and human beings do not live except by coming together in groups and living with one another.


Whenever two or more come together, there must of necessity be between them mutual enjoining of some things, and mutual forbidding of other things. For this reason, the smallest congregation in prayer is two people, and it has been said: two people or more constitutes a "congregation" (jama'a), and since their coming together is strictly for prayer, that is accomplished with only two, whereby one is the leader (imam), and the other is the led (ma'moom). As the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Al-Malik ibn Al- Huwairith and his companion:


"When the time of prayer comes, make the adhan and the iqama, and then let the older of you lead the prayer." (They were similar in ability to read the Quran.) As for ordinary affairs (other than prayer), it is narrated in the books of hadith that the Prophet said: "It is not allowed for three who go on a trip to fail to appoint one of them as amir" (leader)

This Enjoining Must Be With That Which Allah And His Prophet Have Enjoined


Enjoining and forbidding are of necessity present with the presence of human beings. However, one may fail to enjoin the ma'ruf which Allah and His Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) have enjoined, and to forbid the munkar which Allah and His Prophet have forbidden, and to be ordered to do the ma'ruf which Allah and His Prophet have ordered, and to be forbidden the munkar which Allah and His Prophet have forbidden. Even so, there will always be some kind of enjoining and forbidding, and being enjoined and being forbid. This may be with that which is opposite to the good and the evil which Allah and His Prophet have defined, or it may be with that which contains elements of both the truth which Allah sent down, and the falsehood for which Allah has sent no authority. If this admixture is taken as a way of life (deen), it is a deen of innovation, falsehood, and going astray. And since, as we have shown, every single person is living, acting with free will, a a seeker of objectives, a "tiller of the earth", whoever's intentions and actions are not righteous and for the sake of Allah, must of necessity commit actions which are corrupt, or not for the sake of Allah - and that is falsehood and invalid. As Allah said:


[Verily, your efforts are various.] Quran 92/4


Such actions, all of them, are invalid like the actions (however good) of the disbelievers:


[Those who reject faith, and hinder from the path of Allah, Allah will send all of their works astray.] Quran 47/1


[As for those who disbelieve, their works are like a mirage in an empty plain. The thirsty one believes it to be water, but when he reaches it, he finds it to be nothing, and he finds Allah there who gives him his full account, and Allah is very quick to take to account.] Quran 24/39


[And we turned to all the works which they had done, and made them (as) floating dust. (The word literally means the dust which can be seen in the air in the beam of light coming in through a small opening.)] Quran 25/23


Who Are "Those In Authority Among You" Who Enjoin What Is Right?


Allah has ordered us in His Book to obey Him, to obey His Prophet, and to obey those in authority among the believers saying:


[O, you who believe, obey Allah and obey His Prophet, and those in authority among you. And if you disagree in any issue, take it back to Allah and to the Prophet, if you truly believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is best, and will have the best final result (in application)] Quran 4/59


"Those in authority" are: the possessors of authority, and its people. They are the ones who enjoin the people and forbid them. This is shared by both those having political and temporal power, and the people of knowledge and intellectual influence.


Thus, "those in authority" consist of two categories: the scholars and the rulers. When they are righteous, the people are righteous, and when they are corrupt, the people are corrupt. Just as Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) said to Al-Ahmasiya when she asked:


"How long will we (be able) to remain in this good state?" Abu Bakr said: "As long as your rulers are upright."


Of this group are the kings and the "Shaikhs", and the men of religion, along with anyone who is followed by someone, who is also in a position of "authority" among you.


It is upon each and every one of these to enjoin what Allah has enjoined, and forbid what Allah has forbidden. Furthermore, it is upon everyone who is required in Islam to obey his amir, or others, to obey them in (all that is) obedience to Allah, and not to obey them in disobedience to Allah, Abu Bakr said when he first assumed the Caliphate:


"O, people, the strong among you is the weak as far as I am concerned until I take peoples right dues from him (and give them to their rightful owners). Obey me, as long as I obey Allah, and if I disobey Allah, I have no right to your obedience."


Chapter 1

Enjoining Right: Our Prophet And Those Before Him

Chapter 2

This Nation Is The Best Nation For The People

Chapter 3

What Is Maruf (right) And Munkar (wrong)?

Chapter 3

Let Your Enjoining Of Good Be Itself Good

Chapter 4

Benefits Must Outweigh Negative Consequences

Chapter 5

Methodology Of Enjoining Right And Forbidding Wrong

Chapter 6

Pitfalls Of Enjoining Right And Forbidding Wrong

Chapter 7

Rebellion Against The Imam Of The Muslims

Chapter 8

The General Principle Of Enjoining And Forbidding

Chapter 9

It Is Obligatory To Measure All Things By The Criterion Of The Shariah

Chapter 10

The Love Of Good Should Be In Harmony With What Allah Loves

Chapter 11

The Love And Hate Of The Heart

Chapter 12

What Exactly Is Hawaa

Chapter 13

The Following Of Hawaa In The Previous Religions

Chapter 14

What A Person Loves And Hates Must Be In Accordance With The Order Of Allah And His Prophet

Chapter 15

What Are "good Works"?

Chapter 16

Action Is Not Possible Except With Knowledge And Understanding

Chapter 17

Compassion, Patience & Forbearance Are Required In Enjoining Right

Chapter 18

The Difficulty Of These Requirements

Chapter 19

Disobedience To Allah Causes Difficulty, Obedience Causes Ease

Chapter 20

Allah's Punishment Of The Previous Nations For Their Disobedience

Chapter 21

Punishment Of The Evil-doers In This World And The Next

Chapter 22

Promises And Threats Of Punishment Were The First Part Of Revelation

Chapter 23

Differences About Enjoining & Forbidding Are The Cause Of Division

Chapter 24

Sins Are Desired By Human Nature

Chapter 25

Greed Is The Cause Of Slipping Into Deviation

Chapter 26

Types Of Sins

Chapter 27

Success In Worldly Affairs Is By Justice

Chapter 28

Human Nature: Tyranny, Envy & Oppression

Chapter 29

Good Must Support Good As Bad Supports Bad

Chapter 30

The Severity Of The Test Causes Elevation Of Rank

Chapter 31

The Need For Certainty Of Belief

Chapter 32

Human Affairs Will Not Go Straight Except With Courage And Generosity

Chapter 33

A Return To Patience And Its Types

Chapter 34

The Forbiddance Of Transgressing The Bounds

Chapter 35

Fervour And Courage Which Is Praiseworthy

Chapter 36

Fear Of Falling Into Temptation As An Excuse For Neglecting Enjoining Right

Chapter 37

The Sons Of Adam Do Not Live Except In Societies

Chapter 38

Pure Intention To Please Allah Is Required In All Righteous Deeds

Chapter 39

The Meanings Of Islam

Chapter 40

The Meaning Of Submitting One's Face To Allah

Chapter 41

Definition Of Righteous Action

Chapter 42

The Meaning Of The "sunnah" In The Discourses Of The Salaf