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Chapter 2.8. The Causes For Jealousy

This is what occurred with Zaynab hint Jahsh for she used to be one who would vie with Aishah from the wives of the Prophet. The jealousy displayed by some women to others is great, and is especially true of those who are married to one husband. The woman will go to great extents to get her allotted time from him for sometimes some of her allotted time will be missed due to his sharing with other wives. This jealousy commonly occurs amongst those that share authority or property in the case when some of them take a share from it and others are left with none. It also occurs between those that debate, due to their hatred that their opponent gets the better of them, such as the jealousy of the brothers of Yusuf, or the jealousy of the two sons of Adam one to the other for in this case the brother was envied by the other due to Allah accepting his sacrifice and not the other's, this leading to his murder. Also, the jealousy displayed towards the Muslims by the Jews. It was said,

The first sins by which Allah was disobeyed were three: covetousness, arrogance and jealousy. Covetousness was displayed by Adam, arrogance by Iblis, and jealousy from Qabil when he killed Habil.

In the hadith there occurs:

There are three sins from which no one can be saved: jealousy, suspicion and omens. Shall I tell you of what would remove you from this: when you envy then do not hate, when you are suspicious then do not actualize your suspicions, and when you see omens then ignore them. [Ahmad and Tirmidhi]

Reported by Ibn Abi ad-Dunya from the hadith of Abu Hurairah,

You have been afflicted with the illness of the nations that came before you - jealousy and hatred . They are the shearers I do not mean shearers of the hair, rather they are shearers of the religion. [Tirmidhi, Tabaran and Hakim]

So he called jealousy an illness just as he called miserliness an illness in his saying,

And what illness is worse than miserliness. [Ahmad and Hakim]

And in another hadith,

I seek refuge with You from the evil morals and manners, vain desires and illnesses.

Mentioning illnesses alongside manners and vain desires. Manners are those things that the soul becomes accustomed to such that they become its nature and disposition. Allah said in this regard,

And indeed you are upon an exalted Standard of character. [Surah Qalam (68):4]

Ibn Abbas, Ibn Uyaynah and Ahmad ibn Hanbal said in commentary to this:

Meaning 'upon a great religion.'

And in a variant wording of Ibn Abbas:

'The religion of Islam.'

This was similarly stated by Aishah

His manners were the Quran,

and Hasan al-Basri,

The manners of the Quran is 'the exalted standard of character.'

As for 'vain desires' then they are temporary anomalous conditions, and 'illness' is sickness - this is art affliction that harms the heart and corrupts it. In the first hadith jealousy was mentioned along with hatred. This is because the envier, first of all dislikes the bounty bestowed by Allah upon the one who is envied, and then begins hating this person. This is because the hatred of the thing being bestowed leads to hatred of the one upon whom it is bestowed, for when the blessings of Allah are bestowed upon an individual, he would love that they go away, and they would not go away except by the one who is envied going away, therefore he hates him and loves that he not be there.

Jealousy necessarily leads to desire and hatred just as Allah informed us of those that came before us: that they differed,

After their came to them knowledge out of mutual hatred and desire. [Surah Al lmran (3):19]

So their differing did not arise due to the lack of knowledge, rather they knew the Truth; but it was due to some of them hating others, just as the envier hates the envied.

In the Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, Anas bin Malik reports that the Prophet said,

Do not envy each other, do not hate each other, do not oppose each other, and do not cut relations, rather be servants of Allah as brothers. It is not permissible for a Muslim to disassociate from his brother for more than three days such that they meet and one ignores the other, and the best of them is the one who initiates the Salam. [Bukhari and Muslim]

He said, in the hadith that is agreed to be authentic, reported by Anas also,

By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, none of you believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself. [Bukhari and Muslim]

Allah, the Most High, said,

There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in the Way of Allah). If a misfortune befalls you, he says: 'Indeed Allah has favoured me in that I was not present among them.' But if a bounty comes to you from Allah, he would surely say - as if there had never been any ties of affection between you and him - 'Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.' [Surah an-Nisa (4):72-73]

So these people who lingered behind did not love for their brother Muslims what they loved for themselves, rather if the Muslims were afflicted with a calamity, they were overjoyed that it only afflicted them, and if they met with blessings they were not happy for them, rather they wished that they too had a portion of this blessing. So they would not become happy except if they received something of this world or some evil of this world was diverted from them. This was due to them not loving Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, for if this had been the case they would have loved their brothers, and loved what they had received of His blessings and they would have been hurt by the calamity that had afflicted them.

As for the one who is not made happy by what has made the Muslims happy, and is not grieved by what has made the Muslims grieve then he is not of them. In the Sahihs of al-Bukhari and Muslim from  Amir ash-Shabi who said: "I heard an-Numan bin Bashir delivering a sermon and saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

The similitude of the believers with respect to their mutual love; mutual mercy and mutual kindness in like that of one body. When a part of it suffers, the whole body suffers with fever and sleeplessness. [Bukhari and Muslim]

In the Sahihs of al-Bukhari and Muslim. from the hadith of Abu Musa al-Ashari, who said: "The Messenger of Allah said,

The Muslim to another Muslim is like a building, one part of it strengthens another and he interlaced his fingers. [Bukhari and Muslim]